The response of the international community to the climate change is operated by the United Nations through the Framework Convention on the Climate Change that aims at stabilizing the atmosphere concentrations of greenhouse gases at the levels such as to prevent dangerous human interferences with the climate system. Moreover, the Conference of the Parties (COP) is the organism that has the assignment to secure the correct implementation of the convention through protocols or other instruments.
The main steps of the agenda are the Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997 with the exclusion of the United States, the Conference of Bali (2007), whose actions are focus on the definition of methodologies and on the procedures of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, the COP15 Copenhagen (2009) which tried to define a new agreement, coordinate and bind the states but was unfortunately not reached, and finally the Cancun, Durban and Doha.
The major achievement of the COP19-Varsavia (2013) is the establishment of a "Framework for REDD which is the creation of a mechanism, even if it is financial, to tackle deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, the launch of the ‘‘International mechanism of Warsaw for the losses and climate damages’’ (loss and damage) associated with risk reduction strategies (principle of the damage limitations), the path toward a ‘‘Protocol or other legal instrument’’ to be adopted in Paris in 2015, recognition of the role of cities and sub-national authorities, and the adoption of the operational decision of the Green Climate Fund.
At the New York- 23 September 2014 UN Conference, the General Secretary in the Summit of Heads of State strongly denounced that "climate change is the biggest collective challenge that humanity faces today", and set in motion actions to relaunch negotiations in preparation for COP21 in Paris.
The nodes that are addressed at the COP20-LIMA (1-15 December 2014) in Lima linked four pillars of Warsaw. These are the commitments to quantify reductions by Governments before 2020 and after, the quantification of loans and transfers to the Fund, the methods of quantification of damages and losses, and finally the setting the text columns for a Convention.
The COP21- PARIS (December 2015) aims to give rise to a new treaty of the most compelling respect Kyoto, to adopt reduction targets, not open to negotiations, but offered as commitments by individual countries (bottom-up) with subscription of bonds and a system to monitor the commitments made, to enforced in the 2015 Treaty for the ‘‘post-2020’’ period, and to make available resources of individual countries to launch the Green Climate Fund.
The critical issues to be overcome in the preparation of COP 21 are the distances between the countries involved, the crisis of governance and effectiveness compared to the maintenance of the commitments, the need to overcome the logic of the Kyoto Protocol, and the positions of the parties that remain diversified: the United States and especially the BRICS.
Seminar Varsavia. CICMA R.Lembo